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Belladonna-Atropa acuminata seeds for sale

Medicinal use of  Belladonna : Belladona is a native of Gilgat (Azad Kashmir). It grows wild/ground in the Kashmir to Gilgat. It is cultivated in Pakistan, IRAN,, Italy, India, USA, Europe, it is sparingly cultivated in Gilgat, Muzaffarabad. (Azd Kashmir. A. BELLADONA introduced in Kashmir and Gilgat by Europeans which has crossed with Himalayan

Cashmiriana Belladonna has very similar uses to the related deadly nightshade (A. bella-donna). The roots and leaves are used in India as anodyne, diuretic, mydriatic, narcotic and sedative. The following uses for deadly nightshade are also probably applicable for this species:- Although it is poisonous, deadly nightshade has a long history of medicinal use and has a wide range of applications, in particular it is used to dilate the pupils in eye operations, to relieve intestinal colic and to treat peptic ulcers. The plant can be used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, reducing tremors and rigidity whilst improving speech and mobility. It has also been used as an antidote in cases of mushroom or toadstool poisoning. This is a very poisonous plant, it should be used with extreme caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. See also the notes above on toxicity. All parts of the plant are analgesic, antidote, antispasmodic, diuretic, hallucinogenic, mydriatic, narcotic and sedative. The root is the most active part of the plant, it is harvested in the autumn and can be 1 - 3 years old, though the older roots are very large and difficult to dig up. The leaves are harvested in late spring and dried for later use. All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids. The leaves contain on average 0.4% active alkaloids, whilst the root contains around 0.6%. The alkaloid content also varies according to the development of the plant, being low when the plant is flowering and very high when bearing green berries. These alkaloids inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system which controls involuntary body activities. This reduces saliva, gastric, intestinal and bronchial secretions, as well as the activity of the urinary tubules, bladder and intestines. An extract of the plant has been used as eyedrops. It has the effect of dilating the pupils thus making it easier to perform eye operations. In the past women used to put the drops in their eyes in order to make them look larger and thus "more beautiful". The entire plant, harvested when coming into flower, is used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is used especially in cases where there is localised and painful inflammation that radiates heat. It is also used to treat sunstroke and painful menstruation.

Description of the plant :

Plant : Perennial
Height : 90 cm (2 feet)
Flovering : June to August
Habitat of the herb : Found at elevations between 1800 and 3600 metres.

Propagation of Belladonna : Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Germination of stored seed is slow and erratic, usually taking 1 - 6 months at 10 C. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of softwood terminal shoots in spring. Root cuttings in winter.

Cultivation of the herb : Found at elevations between 1800 and 3600 metres.

Known hazards of Atropa acuminata : The whole plant, and especially the root, is very poisonous. Even handling the plant has been known to cause problems if the person has cuts or grazes on the hand. The plant is particularly dangerous for children since the fruit looks attractive and has a sweet taste. The toxins are concentrated in the ripe fruit.

Belladona-Atropa acuminata Royle seeds are available at:

JK Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
home: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Sage-Salvia cashmiriana leaves, plants ,seeds for sale

Sage is a native of Mediterranean area. It grows wild in the Dalmatian region of Yugoslavia. It is cultivated in Yugoslavia, Italy, Albania, Pakistan, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Cyprus, England, Canada and USA.In Kashmir, it is sparingly cultivated in Gilgat, Muzaffarabad..

Sage thrives well in rich clayey and loamy soil. A hot and dry climate is not suitable for its cultivation

Uses : Sage is used in the culinary preparation in the West. The taste is fragrant, spicy, warm, astringent and a little bitter. It is used for flavouring meat and fish dishes and for poultry stuffing. Fresh sage leaves are used in salads and sandwiches.
 
Sage-Salvia Cashmiriana leaves for hair has been proven to boost hair growth. It soaks up excess oil and makes dirty hair look fresh. It helps in reversing hair loss problems, promoting hair growth, and strengthening hair for better manageability and shine. Clary sage Leaves  speeds up hair growth and prevents premature balding. If you are wondering about clary sage oil uses in your daily lifestyle, then read this article to find out its uses in aromatherapy, in preventing hair loss, and some simple at-home remedies as well.

The  sage leaves  is valuable for conditions such as:
Digestive Disorders, Female Complaints, Acne, Boils, Hair Loss, Skin Wrinkles, Excess Sebum,  Hair Loss,Natural Hair Products, Female Baldness, Shine your Hair,Split Ends, Dandruf, Male Pattern Baldness

The leaves and oil is an antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, antiseptic, deodorant, euphoric, sedative, and nervine tonic. As you can see, sage has many valuable uses in the field of natural medicine, but, interestingly enough, many of its traditional uses are for skin disorders. This is the reason why sage can play a large role in your natural hair loss program.

Sage leaves
Price: 550/-50 grams/pkt
(Other pkts: 100, 200, 500 grams
Sage Oil: 1 Ltr. 9500/-
Planting material are also available

JKMedicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 09858986794, 01933-223705
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
home: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Medicinal use of Phytolacca acinosa

Medicinal use of  Phytolacca acinosa : The root is antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antidote, antifungal, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and vermifuge. The plant has an interesting chemistry and it is currently (1995) being investigated as a potential anti-AIDS drug. It contains potent anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral proteins and substances that affect cell division. These compounds are toxic to many disease-causing organisms, including the water snails that cause schistosomiasis. The root is used internally in the treatment of urinary disorders, nephritis, oedema and abdominal distension. Externally, it is used to treat boils, carbuncles and sores. The roots are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. All parts of the plant are toxic, this remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Description of the plant:

Plant : Perennial
Height : 150 cm (5 feet)
Flovering : July to August

Habitat of the herb : Valleys, hillsides, forest understories, forest margins and roadsides at elevations of 500 - 3400 metres. It is also found in cultivated land houses, moist fertile lands and as a weed.

Edible parts of Phytolacca acinosa : Leaves - they must be cooked, and are then used as a spinach. Only the young leaves should be used since the leaves become toxic with age. The young shoots are used as an asparagus substitute. They have an excellent flavour. Root - cooked. Must be leeched first. Only the white root of the white flowered form (if it exists!) should be eaten. See notes above.

Other uses of the herb : A red ink is obtained from the fruit.

Propagation of  Phytolacca acinosa : Seed - sow autumn or spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it might be worthwhile trying an outdoor sowing in a seed bed in early spring. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for their first year and plant them out the following spring. Division in March or October. Use a sharp spade or knife to divide the rootstock, making sure that each section has at least one growth bud. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Cultivation of the herb : Valleys, hillsides, forest understories, forest margins and roadsides at elevations of 500 - 3400 metres. It is also found in cultivated land houses, moist fertile lands and as a weed.

Known hazards of  Phytolacca acinosa : The leaves are poisonous. They are said to be safe to eat when young, the toxins developing as they grow older. According to another report it is only a form with reddish purple flowers and a purple root that is poisonous.

For more details about planting material:-
Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC
Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail:jkmpi
web: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com


Medicinal use of Phytolacca acinosa

Medicinal use of  Phytolacca acinosa : The root is antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antidote, antifungal, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and vermifuge. The plant has an interesting chemistry and it is currently (1995) being investigated as a potential anti-AIDS drug. It contains potent anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral proteins and substances that affect cell division. These compounds are toxic to many disease-causing organisms, including the water snails that cause schistosomiasis. The root is used internally in the treatment of urinary disorders, nephritis, oedema and abdominal distension. Externally, it is used to treat boils, carbuncles and sores. The roots are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. All parts of the plant are toxic, this remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Description of the plant:

Plant : Perennial
Height : 150 cm (5 feet)
Flovering : July to August

Habitat of the herb : Valleys, hillsides, forest understories, forest margins and roadsides at elevations of 500 - 3400 metres. It is also found in cultivated land houses, moist fertile lands and as a weed.

Edible parts of Phytolacca acinosa : Leaves - they must be cooked, and are then used as a spinach. Only the young leaves should be used since the leaves become toxic with age. The young shoots are used as an asparagus substitute. They have an excellent flavour. Root - cooked. Must be leeched first. Only the white root of the white flowered form (if it exists!) should be eaten. See notes above.

Other uses of the herb : A red ink is obtained from the fruit.

Propagation of  Phytolacca acinosa : Seed - sow autumn or spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it might be worthwhile trying an outdoor sowing in a seed bed in early spring. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for their first year and plant them out the following spring. Division in March or October. Use a sharp spade or knife to divide the rootstock, making sure that each section has at least one growth bud. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Cultivation of the herb : Valleys, hillsides, forest understories, forest margins and roadsides at elevations of 500 - 3400 metres. It is also found in cultivated land houses, moist fertile lands and as a weed.

Known hazards of  Phytolacca acinosa : The leaves are poisonous. They are said to be safe to eat when young, the toxins developing as they grow older. According to another report it is only a form with reddish purple flowers and a purple root that is poisonous.

For more details about planting material:-
JK Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azeemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR J&K 192121
Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail: jkmpic@gmail.com, jkmpic@yahoo.in


Saw Palmetto-Serenoa repens seedlings available

Saw Palmetto-Serenoa repens seedlings available

Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre is one of the premier  Agriculture, Horticulture & Floriculture based institution involved in production, development, introduction, trading and manufacturing exporting of RAW HERBS, FRUITS, SPICES, Plant Leaves, Fruit, Medicinal Plants, Vegetable seeds from Kashmir.

Oak-Quercus robur Colchicum Luteum,Saffron Bulbs (Crocus sativus Linn), Marijuana-Cannabis indica, Hawthorn berries/seeds(Crataegus oxycantha), Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Celosia Linn, Pyrethrum, Malus communis, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus serotina, Cedrus deodar, Aeaxulus indica Colebr, Capsicum annum, Ginkgo biloba Seeds,Wild Cherry, Sweet Cherry, Pomengranate , Sweet Appricort, Apple, Kewi, Plum,Lukat, Peach, Almond, Walnut Grapes, Sweet Chestnut, Ginkgo biloba plants, Althaea officinalis, cypress cashmiriana seeds,Ceratonia siliqua,Viola serpentine cashmiriana (Bunafsha), Dioscorea deltoidea, Saussurea costus cashmiriana, Gladiolus bulbs ,Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens), Beldona seeds, Kuth (Saussuria lappa) etc. etc.

Plants/Seeds are available at:
Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azeemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR J&K 192121
Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
web: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Saffron Multiplication Seed Corms nursery set up at Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre,  has setup a first of its kind Saffron Multiplication Seed Corms (SMSC) Nursery over 5 hectares of land at Seed Multiplication Centre  in Kashmir. The Saffron nursery was inspected by Minister for Agriculture along with Chairperson Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre Sheikh Gulzaar. An official statement said that the nursery has been developed on scientific basis over an area of 5 hectares and 3000 kg of Healthy fifth calibar Saffron  corms planted in it that would in turn produce three times more Saffron seed corms for its  distribution among Saffron farmers under saffron Mission. The Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre  has adopted two technologies in the nursery for seed multiplication of Saffron Seed corms, one is traditional which is mainly used in Kareves of Pampore and second is Spanish technology. 

More details can be obtained from:-
JK Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-(R&D)
Mob: 09858986794
Ph: 01933-223705
e.mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
web: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Kuth-Saussuria costus seeds/planting material

Kuth-Saussuria costus
Syn. S. lappa (Decne.) Sch. Bip.
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Vernacular name : Kuth
Kashmiri name: Kuth

Kuth (Saussuria costus) is a perennial root crop and belongs to the family Compositeae. It is cultivated in Kashmir. It is an important cash crop of the Kashmir valley.

Distribution : Western Himalayas all along in temperate conditions.

Botanical features : Perennial herb. Stem upto 2m, generally unbranched. Basal leaves long stalked, pinnate with a large tringular terminal lobe upto 30 cm across. Stem leaves smaller, irregularly tothed. Flower-heads in dense rounded terminal clusters, purplish in colour. Involucral bracts numerous, rigid with twisted and recurved tips. Achenes upto 5 mm long., obovate, shining.

Medicinal uses: Root-Insect repellant, smoked as substitute for opium. Used in cough and asthma. The alcoholic extract useful in treatment of bronchial asthma particularly of vagotonic type.

In Kashmir, US, Afghanistan, and IRAN  the root oil is used to protect valuable garments from insect damage. Dried stems used as fodder in H.P.

Soil :Well drained loam soil is the best for the cultivation of this crop. Its cultivation should be avoided on sloppy and stoney field.

Preparatory tillage : As recommended for wheat.

Sowing and seed rate : The sowing of kuth should be done before the onset of winter season as the seed of this crop requires chilling for germination. Seed starts germination only after the melting of snow during April-May. Seed rate of 32 kg per ha is recommended. It should be sown by hand dibbling or kera in rows 23 cm apart. The seed should be dibbled 3-4 cm deep.

Manuring : Apply 25 kg N, 25 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O per hectare each year with first irrigation in May. This dose is to be applied for three consecutive years required for the crop to be matured.

Irrigation : The crop requires frequent irrigations from May to September during all the three years.

Interculture and weeding : Hoeing in May after each winter is necessary. In addition, 3 weedings are necessary in each year.

Harvesting : The crop is ready for harvest at the end of the third year in September-October. Before harvesting the crop, irrigate the field thoroughly for ease in uprooting the roots with pick axes. After harvesting, the roots are cut in 7-10 cm pieces, dried for 2-3 weeks and cleaned thoroughly for storing and marketing.


Seeds and plants can be obtained from:
JK Medicinal Plants Introduction centre
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azeemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR J&K 192121

Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
web: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) for sale

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) : Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens as mentioned, is a topical palm like small plant in North America. will extract from fruit or berries of the saw palmetto is derived, and the berries, while itself strongly with fatty acids (lauric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid enriched) polysaccharides) and phytosterols (plant sterols. It is extracted largely as an aphrodisiac for men and Women sold. aphrodisiac is an agent that is used in the belief that it increases sexual desire. Uses of Saw Palmetto Saw Palmetto has also been used to a wide range of conditions, including the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to treated, a condition characterized by enlarged prostate, urinary tract other problems, skin diseases, thyroid defeciences, genitals, impotence, improve hormonal disorders, cystitis, etc.

Among other advantages, also taken to the skin can be revitalize, urine flow in the breast enlargement men, women and pulmonary congestion due to cough, asthma and bronchitis. Role of saw palmetto in preventing hair loss recently, it was widely accepted as a very effective treatment, herbal hair loss reverse and treatment of diseases such as alopecia. It is one of the best hair loss treatment available today Organina considered. scientific evidence that Saw Palmetto inhibits the conversion of organic substances testosterone into DHT and prevents DHT from the addition bind to the androgen receptor thus a better control of hair loss in men. For the role of DHT in Palmetto hair loss because of its improved to prevent substantial understanding of the causes. It helps and hair follicles revitalize hair strength, volume and shine, scalp, making it less susceptible to stress and anger. So, if you for safe products for hair loss saw palmetto seeks an option you should consider first . Even if it does not help hair sudden outpouring known, but when taken over a period of time, would surely prevent it, hair loss and extend atleast situation where many people can go to the surgical option, as the transplant to restore her crown better. Taking it out on some vitamins and minerals. Are there any side effects associated with use of Saw Palmetto? There are no known side effects and documented with the use of Saw Palmetto associated both externally and internally However, if you have any concerns have on its always best to consult your doctor. How saw palmetto used for? internal lies:

The recommended dosage for saw palmetto between 160 mg / day to 320 mg / day, when taken orally. Ext: Saw palmetto can be used as an oil extract or ointment that can be gently massaged into the purchase are hair roots. Since its lipophilic components in nature, they are in the oil extracted base and are easily absorbed through the skin, making an even more productive. to leave If wash before hair, applied at least half an hour (1-2 hours to absorb better). For better heat absorption in hot water or in the microwave (50-10 seconds) before use. Preferably, it should be applied at night before bedtime and left overnight, the better results through better absorption.

Cultivation details:
Choose a location that has dry, well draining soil. The soil must be high in quartz and fine grained. The Saw Palmetto grows best in high heat yet also survives in short frosts. The tree grows well in shade or sun.

Plan on planting the seeds after the summer rains. Saturated soils can retard early growth and flooding can prevent root establishment.

Soak the seeds in warm water for at least 24 hours. Soaking enhances the germination process and helps the seeds sprout quicker.

Plant the seeds in the ground just below the surface. Often times the seeds pass through animal digestive systems and take root when the palm is out in the wilderness exposed to wildlife.

Water the newly planted seeds regularly, but not too much as they are a very drought tolerant plant. It grows well in dry ground. Shoots emerge from the seeds 30 to 60 days after planting, but optimal germination is observed up to 6 months.

Qty: 50,100,200,500 seeds/ pkt

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) seeds are available at:
Chenab Industries
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azeemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR J&K 192121
Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail: iirc@rediffmail.com
web: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com

GREY HAIR Treatment Cure for White Hair

Sage is a native of Mediterranean area. It grows wild in the Dalmatian region of Yugoslavia. It is cultivated in Yugoslavia, Italy, Albania, Pakistan, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Cyprus, England, Canada and USA.In Kashmir, it is sparingly cultivated in Gilgat, Muzaffarabad..

Sage thrives well in rich clayey and loamy soil. A hot and dry climate is not suitable for its cultivation
Uses

Sage is used in the culinary preparation in the West. The taste is fragrant, spicy, warm, astringent and a little bitter. It is used for flavouring meat and fish dishes and for poultry stuffing. Fresh sage leaves are used in salads and sandwiches.

Sage-SalviaCashmiriana leaves for hair has been proven to boost hair growth. It soaks up excess oil and makes dirty hair look fresh. It helps in reversing hair loss problems, promoting hair growth, and strengthening hair for better manageability and shine. Clary sage Leaves  speeds up hair growth and prevents premature balding. If you are wondering about clary sage oil uses in your daily lifestyle, then read this article to find out its uses in aromatherapy, in preventing hair loss, and some simple at-home remedies as well.

The  sage leaves  is valuable for conditions such as:
Digestive Disorders, Female Complaints, Acne,Boils, Hair Loss, Skin Wrinkles, Excess Sebum

The leaves and oil is an antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, antiseptic, deodorant, euphoric, sedative, and nervine tonic. As you can see, sage has many valuable uses in the field of natural medicine, but, interestingly enough, many of its traditional uses are for skin disorders. This is the reason why sage can play a large role in your natural hair loss program.

Sage leaves powder
Price: 550/-50 grams/pkt
(Other pkts: 100, 200, 500 grams
Sage Oil: 1 Ltr. 9500/-
Available at:
Chenab Industries Kashmir-CIK
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 09858986794, 01933-223705
e-mail: cikashmir@gmail.com
home: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) recommended for breast cancer

Saffron is recommended for breast cancer
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) contains chemical constituents that are responsible for its color, flavor and aroma. Saffron contains numerous phytoactive components, including crocetin, various crocins (such as picrocrocin), zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene and safranal (the main component of saffron's fragrant essential oil). Saffron components have been shown to have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor properties, as well as reducing blood pressure, anxiety and depression.

Saffron is recommended for breast cancer
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) contains chemical constituents that are responsible for its color, flavor and aroma. Saffron contains numerous phytoactive components, including crocetin, various crocins (such as picrocrocin), zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene and safranal (the main component of saffron's fragrant essential oil). Saffron components have been shown to have strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor properties, as well as reducing blood pressure, anxiety and depression.

Breast cancer-related effects of eating saffron

Both saffron and crocin have been found to suppress DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in the livers, lungs, kidneys, and spleens of laboratory mice. Saffron has been shown to inhibit carcinogen-induced skin carcinoma in mice and to have cytotoxic action against human leukemia cell lines. Saffron also has been shown to cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 liver cancer cells and TCC 5637 transitional cell carcinoma cells. Saffron extract and its constituent, crocin, have been shown to significantly inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells while not harming normal cells. Crocetin, a major carotenoid component of saffron, has been shown to have significant antiproliferative and proapoptic effects in pancreatic cancer cells in the laboratory and in laboratory mice. Saffron extract has been shown to have dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Saffron has been found to greatly inhibit chemotherapy-induced cellular DNA damage. However, there is some evidence that saffron could be toxic at very high doses and we recommend consuming saffron as a spice and not taking saffron tablets.

Additional comments
Saffron is hand picked and hand processed, which is one reason for its high market price. Saffron is grown primarily in Iran, but it is also grown in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Kashmir and some parts of North Africa. Much of the Iranian production is redistributed through Spain. Saffron grown in these regions generally is grown without using pesticides. China is also beginning to produce saffron.

Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale), also known as wild saffron, Autumn crocus, or colchicum, is an unrelated and poisonous plant that should not be confused with saffron and is to be avoided. It can cause thirst, pain, diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, kidney failure, coma, and death from respiratory failure. Diluted fractions of meadow saffron are sometimes used in herbal remedies for gout and arthritis.

Saffron might interfere with Warfarin (coumadin) and other blood-thinning therapy since it has been shown to reduce platelet aggregation and thrombosis formation.

Selected breast cancer studies
Flavonoids, Proanthocyanidins, and Cancer Risk: A Network of Case-Control Studies From Italy Nutrition and Cancer, October 2010
The present meta-analysis was designed to investigate the associations between dietary intake of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and risks of various types of cancer. The meta-analysis analyzed data from multiple Italian case-control studies including approximately 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and more than 16,000 cancer-free controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the highest compared to the lowest quintiles (fifths) of consumption of six classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Total intakes of flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were found to be inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (OR = 0.56 (oral cancer) and OR = 0.60 (laryngeal cancer) for total flavonoids; 0.51 (oral) and 0.60 (laryngeal) for flavanones; and 0.62 (oral) and 0.32 (laryngeal) for flavonols). Intake of flavanols was also found to be inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas intake of flavanones was inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). Reduced risk of colorectal cancer was associated with high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse associations were also found between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer, especially for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers). No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer was found. A reduction in risk of breast cancer was found for high dietary intake of flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Common flavones include apigenin and luteolin (tricin is another flavone found primarily in brown rice). Common flavonols include quercetin, kaempferol and fisetin. Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were found to be inversely associated with risk of ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated with renal cancer.

Circulating Carotenoids, Mammographic Density, and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer Cancer Research, November 2009
The present nested case-control study was designed to investigate whether the association between carotenoid consumption and risk of breast cancer is related to mammographic density. High breast density as measured by mammography has been reported to be a powerful indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The study included 604 breast cancer cases and 626 cancer-free controls in the Nurses' Health Study for whom circulating carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels had been measured and mammograms obtained prospectively. Using a computer-assisted method to determine mammographic density, circulating carotenoids were not found to be associated with mammographic density. However, mammographic density significantly influenced the association between total circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.008). Total circulating carotenoid levels were found to be inversely associated with overall breast cancer risk (P trend = 0.01). Among women in the highest third of mammographic density, total circulating carotenoids were associated with a 50% lower risk of breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.3 - 0.8). Similarly, among these women, high levels of circulating alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were found to be associated with a significant 40% to 50% reduction in risk of breast cancer (P trend < 0.05). On the other hand, no such inverse association was observed between circulating carotenoids and breast cancer risk among study participants with low mammographic density. The authors conclude that plasma levels of carotenoids may play a role in reducing risk of breast cancer, especially among women with high breast density.

Crocetin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model Molecular Cancer

Therapeutics, March 2009

The present study was designed to determine whether crocetin, a unique carotenoid found in saffron, significantly affects pancreatic cancer growth. Crocetin was found to inhibit proliferation of MIA-PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Crocetin also was found to alter the cell cycle proteins Cdc-2, Cdc-25C, and Cyclin-B1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting proliferation. In vivo studies also were performed. Pancreatic cancer cells were injected into the right hind legs of athymic nude mice and crocetin was given orally to the mice after the development of a palpable tumor. Significant regression in tumor growth (with inhibition of proliferation) was found in the crocetin-treated animals compared to the control animals. The authors conclude that crocetin stimulated significant apoptosis in both in vitro pancreatic cancer cells and in vivo mice tumors.

Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines Food and Chemical Toxicology, November 2008
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of saffron extract in HepG2 and HeLa liver cancer cell lines. Malignant liver cancer cells and non-malignant cells were cultured and incubated with varying concentrations of an ethanolic saffron extract. Saffron was shown to decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Saffron also induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of saffron-treated cells compared to the controls, indicating apoptotic cell death was involved. This toxicity was found to be independent of ROS production. The authors conclude that saffron can cause cell death in HeLa and HepG2 liver cancer cells, and that apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an important role in this process.

Crocin from Crocus Sativus Possesses Significant Anti-Proliferation Effects on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Experimental Oncology, September 2007

The anti-proliferative effects of Crocus sativus and its major component, crocin, on three colorectal cancer cell lines was examined in this study. Crocus sativus' effect on normal cells was also evaluated. The purity of crocin in the extract used was found to be 95.9% and the crocin content was 22.9%. The extract was found to significantly inhibit the growth of all three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Proliferation was reduced most significantly in HCT-116 cells; to 45.5% at 1.0 mg/ml and to 6.8 % at 3.0 mg/ml. The Crocus sativus extract also had significant anti-proliferative effects in non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, the extract did not significantly affect the growth of non-cancerous young adult mouse colon cells. The authors concluded that Crocus sativus extract and its major constituent, crocin, significantly inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.

Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation by style constituents of different Crocus species Anticancer Research, January 2007
Among the different species of Crocus, only the styles of Crocus Sativus L. have been studied extensively, since these constitute the well-known spice saffron. Saffron is widely used in Mediterranean, Indian and Chinese cuisine. In the present study, hydrophilic carotenoids in the styles of three other Crocuses endemic to Greece (C. boryi ssp. tournefortii, C. boryi ssp. boryi, and C. niveus) were discovered and reported on for the first time. Incubation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 48 hours with varying concentrations of extracts of all four styles was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect did not appear to be estrogen related. Studies on the effect of trans-crocin-4 (the main carotenoid constituent of C. sativus styles, digentibiosylester of crocetin), crocetin and safranal showed that the antiproliferative effect was attributable to crocin irrespective of the degree of glycosylation.

Subacute Toxicity of Crocus Sativus L. (Saffron) Stigma Ethanolic Extract in Rats American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2007
The present study was designed to evaluate the possible toxic effects of an extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma on liver, kidney and selected hematological parameters in rats. Establishing the safety of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is important since the medicinal properties attributed to it are extensive. Wistar rats were assigned to four groups of eight. The first group was designated the control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with an ethanolic extract of saffron in doses of 0.35, 0.70 and 1.05 g per kg, respectively, for two weeks. The body weights of the rats were measured on the first, seventh and final days of the study. Blood-related tests performed on the rats included total RBC count, total WBC count, Hb, %HCT, MCH, MCV and MCHC. Biochemical and serum profile tests included ALT, AST, urea, uric acid and creatinine. Tissue specimens of the rat livers and kidneys were also examined histologically. The extract was found to result in significant reductions in Hb and HCT levels and total RBC count, without a dose-dependent relationship. However, significant dose-dependent increases in total WBC count, ALT, AST, urea, uric acid and creatinine were found in extract-treated rats. Mild to severe liver and kidney tissue injuries were observe microscopically, supporting the biochemical analysis. The authors conclude that extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma is toxic in high doses.

Protective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice Human & Experimental Toxicology, February 2006
The genotoxic potential of chemotherapy drugs limits their efficacy in the treatment of cancers. This study was designed to evaluate the chemoprotective potential of saffron against the toxicity of three well-known chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and mitomycin-C, using comet assay. Three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to mice for five days prior to dosing with the drugs under investigation. Pre-treatment with saffron was found to greatly inhibit chemotherapy drug-induced cellular DNA damage (i.e., strand breaks). The authors conclude that, together with previous study results, the findings suggest a potential role for saffron as an adjuvant in chemotherapeutic applications.
Sources: http://foodforbreastcancer.com/foods/saffron


Crocus Sativus L. (Saffron) Stigma available at:
JK Meddicinal Plants Introduction Centre (R&D Department)
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR J&K 190001
Mob: 09858986794
Ph: 01933-223705
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
web: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Satavari-Asparagus racemosus seeds for sale

Satavari-Asparagus racemosus

Regional Syn : (S) Shatavari (H) Satavari, Shahakul
(B) Satamuli (G) Satavari (T) Kilwari (Per) Satavari (Kashmiri) Wan Gaazar.

Part Used : Root, Leaf, rhizomes and stem

Constituents : Steroidal saponins & glycosides (shatavarin, sarasapogenin, diosgenin), isoflavones, mucilage, alkaloids, asparagamine, sistosterol.

Action/Uses : Refrigerant, demulcent, aphrodisiac, galactagogue,
tonic, antidiarrhoeal,antispasmodic.
Used in; Root; worms, applied on maggot wounds.

Introduction : Shatavari is alterative; antispasmodic; an aphrodisiac, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, galactogogue, and is often used for infertility and for women's health.

Typical Preparations: As an infusion or a tincture. The fresh root is often candied or made into preserves to give it a sugary sweet flavor.

Summary: Shatavari is highly regarded as an herb for women's health and it is the most important herb in Ayurvedic medicine for problems connected to women's fertility. The name Shatavari is from an Indian word meaning "a woman who has a hundred husbands". It is used as a menstrual regulator, to help prevent miscarriage, for menopausal symptoms with hot flushes, irritability, irregular memory and dryness, for lactation, loss of libido, infertility, as an aphrodisiac, and for the female reproductive organs.

Shatavari is also used as a tonic for circulatory, digestive and respiratory organs, ulcers, bronchial infections, diarrhoea, rheumatism, diabetes, bleeding ulcers, gastritis, Crohn's disease, dysentery with bleeding, dry cough, sore throat, inflammation in the lungs due to dryness and heat, male fertility and impotence, building body mass and muscle tissue, nourishing the blood, the immune system, calming the nerves, and insomnia. Externally it is used to treat stiffness in the joints.

Satavari-Asparagus racemosus seeds available at:
50 seeds/pkt. Rs. 350/-
Other pkt: 200, 300,500 seeds
JK Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 09858986794, 01933-223705
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com

Crocus sativus Linn corms

Saffron -Crocus sativus Linn
Family: Iridaceae
English name: Saffron
Kashmiri: Kung
Habitat            : Dry raised slopes
Distribution : Native of S. Europe and west Asia. Cultivated in Kashmir.
Botinical features: Corms of walnut size with fibrous scales remaining upto 30 cm deep in soil. Flowers stalkless with a long slender corolla tube and 6 equal perianth lobes of deep blue-violet colour. Stamens 3; style 3-lobed deep brick-red.

Medicinal uses: Saffron is highly valued spice and colouring agent often cited folk remedy for various types of cancers e.g. tumors of abdomen, bladder, ear, eye, kidney, spleen, stomach and tonsils. It is used as a nervine sedative and given in fevers, melancholia and enlargement of Liver.

Chemical composition: Saffron contains: 12.6% protein, 4.7% fixed oil, 0.8% volatile oil, 57.3% N-free extract, 12.0% starch equivalent, 4.9% fibres and 4.9% fibres and 4.0% ash. Saffron contains a mixture of yellow glycosides, crocin yields gentiobiose and crocetin

Other uses: Dye obtained from flower petals is used to flavour and colour food material. Corms have been used as scarcity food.

Crocus sativus Linn corms are available at:
JK Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com
home: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com


Medicinal Plants of India

Medicinal plants play an important ROLE IN HUMAN LIFE TO COMBAT DISEASES SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL.

The rural folks and tribals in India even now depend largely on the surrounding plants/forests for their day-to-day needs. Medicinal plant are being looked upon not only as a source of health care but also as a source of income. The value of medicinal plants related trade in India is of the order of 5.5 billion US$ (Exim Report-1997) and is further increasing day-by-day. The international market of herbal products is estimated to be US $ 62 BILLION. India share in the global market of medicinal plants trade is less than 0.5%. In view of the innate Indian strengths, which include diverse ecosystems for growth of medicinal plants, technical/farming capacity, strong manufacturing sector, the medicinal plants sector can provide a huge export opportunity after fulfilling domestic needs.
The present e-book covers systematic account of most different plants with pictures used in medicines. It covers Medicinal Plants containing alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, additives and other active matabolites.
We hope that this e. book will be useful not only for technologists, professionals, but also for farmers, traders, students, NGOs, institutions, exporters and importers of Medicinal Plants. 
The CD-based book costs Rs. 575/-
More information:
International Information Resource Centre
Mailing address: POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 09858986794, 01933-223705
e-mail: iirc@rediffmail.com, cikashmir@gmail.com

Ginkgo biloba seeds/Nuts/Laves/Plants for sale

This refers to Ginkgo which is in the worldwide  news. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. In Europe and the United States, Ginkgo supplements are among the best-selling herbal medications. It consistently ranks as a top medicine prescribed in France and Germany.

Ginkgo has been used in traditional medicine to treat circulatory disorders and enhance memory. Scientific studies throughout the years have found evidence to support these uses.

Although not all studies agree, ginkgo may be especially effective in treating dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease) and intermittent claudication (poor circulation in the legs). It also shows promise for enhancing memory in older adults. Laboratory studies have shown that ginkgo improves blood circulation by dilating blood vessels and reducing the stickiness of blood platelets.

It is our prestige to have Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC introduces 500 Ginkgo biloba plants . Now both its male and female plants have been cultivated. As this plant is in high demand throughout world, we can cultivate it on large scale and can make the name of your sate not only in India but all over the world.

Plants/Seeds, Leafs available at:

JKMPIC (Deptt. R&D)
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001

Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail:jkmpic@gmail.com
home: http://jkmpic.blogspot.blogspot.com

Ginkgo biloba seeds/Nuts/Laves/Plants for sale

This refers to Ginkgo which is in the worldwide  news. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. In Europe and the United States, Ginkgo supplements are among the best-selling herbal medications. It consistently ranks as a top medicine prescribed in France and Germany.

Ginkgo has been used in traditional medicine to treat circulatory disorders and enhance memory. Scientific studies throughout the years have found evidence to support these uses. http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com/2010/09/ginkgo-biloba-seedsnutslavesplants-for.html

Although not all studies agree, ginkgo may be especially effective in treating dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease) and intermittent claudication (poor circulation in the legs). It also shows promise for enhancing memory in older adults. Laboratory studies have shown that ginkgo improves blood circulation by dilating blood vessels and reducing the stickiness of blood platelets.

It is our prestige to have Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC introduces 500 Ginkgo biloba plants . Now both its male and female plants have been cultivated. As this plant is in high demand throughout world, we can cultivate it on large scale and can make the name of your sate not only in India but all over the world.

Ginkgo biloba planting material/seeds/leafs/nuts available at:
Chenab Industries Kashmir-CIK
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR JK 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail: cikashmir@gmail.com
home: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com

Chinar plants available at Chenab Industries Kashmir-CIK

Chinar Leaf
The director, Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre JKMPIC, Sheikh Gulzaar planted chinar saplings in JKMPIC, Pulwama here yesterday on Monday. While taking to media persons on the occasion, he said Chinar is a heritage tree of the country and as such is a protected plant. Until 2007, Chinar plantation day was observed on March 21 “World Arboretum Day”. However, keeping in view the magnificent and majestic look and attachment and concern of the people of the country of Kashmir with this tree, state government decided to observe March 15 of every year as Chinar Plantation Day, since 2009.  

http://cikashmir.blogspot.com/2010/09/chinar-plants-available-at-chenab.html

The director said another advantage of pre-poning the date from March 21 to March 15 is that longer period for plantation. During last two years 12373 saplings of Chinar have been provided free of cost to the people for plantation in different areas of the country Jammu Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre has established nurseries for propagation of Chinar saplings and during current plantation season and 93373 saplings are available for distribution.

Sheikh Gulzaar said that anybody who is interested in plantation of Chinar tree can contact the concerned Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre and obtain Chinar plants.

As per the un-authentic data of 1970, about 42000 Chinar trees of different age groups and sizes were existing in thecountry . But with the passage of time, turmoil, development programmes and population explosion, Chinar trees have faced the brunt of greed like the forest and other plants had to face.

Under such circumstances, JKMPIC took the serious initiative for raising the Chinar saplings for sustained efforts for annual plantation of saplings.

In order to determine the actual number of existing Chinar trees in the Kashmir , a preliminary census was initiated by the Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre from 2002 which was completed in 2009.

Chinar Plants Sales office at:
JKMPIC (R&D)
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR Jammu and Kashmir 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail:jkmpic@gmail.com

LAVENDER-Lavandula angustifolia for sale

Lavender (लैवेंडर)-Lavandula angustifolia वहाँ प्रचार के तीन तरीके हैं.  

Cuttings से, बीज और layering. Cuttings द्वारा प्रचार लैवेंडर
 

Cuttings सबसे आसान तरीका है और सफलता की संभावना है उच्च रहे हैं. इसके अलावा, आप तय कर रहे हैं कि नए संयंत्र वास्तव में माता पिता के पौधे के रूप में ही किया जाएगा.
 

सबसे अच्छा तरीका करने के लिए एक काटने के वसंत में एड़ी ले रहा है. यह भी शरद ऋतु में किया जा सकता है लेकिन लंबे समय तक ले काटने रूट करने के लिए होगा. पहले एक रेतीले खाद के साथ भरने के द्वारा एक (पॉट ओं) को भरें. यह तो जल मिट्टी नम है,  लेकिन नहीं टपकता.
 

एक काटने एड़ी लेने के लिए, पहचान के एक स्वस्थ लग रही है जिसके बारे में शूट (10cm 4in) लंबा है और यह मुख्य स्तंभ से नीचे और दूर खींच रहा है. तुम एक गोली जो मुख्य स्तंभ के एक "" इसके आधार पर एड़ी गया है के साथ खत्म हो जाएगा. अगर एड़ी करने के लिए एक लंबे समय तो यह ट्रिम करने के लिए एक तेज चाकू के साथ थोड़ा सा है.
 

एड़ी "हार्मोन" में डुबकी पाउडर या समाधान rooting, एक पेंसिल के साथ खाद में एक छोटे से छेद बनाने के लिए और एड़ी "" सब से नीचा साथ मिट्टी में काटने जगह. 3cm के बारे में (1in काटने) के मिट्टी के नीचे होना चाहिए. धीरे फर्म को काटने के आसपास नीचे मिट्टी. एक प्रकाश हवादार स्थिति में cuttings सीधे सिर्फ मिट्टी नम रखने सूर्य के प्रकाश से बाहर रखें.
 

लैवेंडर लगभग 4 वृद्धि के कुछ संकेत 6 सप्ताह बाद में दिखाना चाहिए. यदि यह एक बड़ा एक में बर्तन, बर्तन outgrows. जड़ें काटने जल्दी शरद ऋतु में इसकी अंतिम स्थिति में लगाया जा सकता है.
 

बीज से प्रचार लैवेंडर लैवेंडर अभिभावक लिखें जब बीज से विकसित करने के लिए सच नहीं बढ़ेगा. इस कारण हम प्रसार की इस पद्धति की सिफारिश नहीं है के लिए.
 

शरद ऋतु में जब बीज परिपक्व हैं (वे सूखे और काले) किया जाना चाहिए, उन्हें लेने और उन्हें एक खाद भरे बर्तन में जगह (देखें ऊपर cuttings) और खाद की एक बहुत पतली परत उन पर बिखरे हुए. उन्हें प्लेस में एक अच्छी तरह संवातित, गर्म और अंधेरे स्थिति. बीज के बारे में छह सप्ताह लग उभरेगा. फिर उन्हें उनके अंतिम स्थिति में और cuttings पौधे के रूप में अगले शरद ऋतु का इलाज.  

Layering द्वारा प्रचार लैवेंडर
जल्दी शरद ऋतु में एक लंबे स्तंभ का चयन करें और धीरे यह जमीनी स्तर पर करने के लिए नीचे झुकना. जमीन पर यह एक घेरा के साथ खूंटी तार के आकार का टुकड़ा और 3cm (1in मिट्टी के) के साथ कवर किया. परत अगले वसंत विकास उत्पादन होगा. जब यह हुआ है, माता पिता के पौधे और गमले से मिट्टी में स्टेम 


Cuttings के लिए एड़ी के रूप में वर्णित तोड़ने.
जल्दी शरद ऋतु में अपने अंतिम स्थिति में प्रत्यारोपण. संयंत्र मूल के एक सटीक प्रतिकृति है और सफलता की संभावना हो जाएगा अधिक हैं.
 

एक बर्तन में लैवेंडर cuttings आप की आवश्यकता होगी:  
* लैवेंडर संयंत्र  
* तेज चाकू  
* 10cm पॉट  
* बहु प्रयोजन खाद  
* हार्मोन rooting (तरल या पाउडर)  
* साफ़ पॉलिथीन बैग

सिंहावलोकन लैवेंडर की गर्मियों cuttings लेना इतना आसान है. इस साल विकास की गैर चुनें फूल गोली मारता है और यह सुनिश्चित है कि यह कीट और रोग से मुक्त है. हमारे कदम के द्वारा सरल कदम का पालन करें और मुक्त करने के लिए अपने पसंदीदा पौधों की अधिक मिलता है.
 

यह कार्य करें: जून-सितम्बर लेता है तो 
 
यह कैसे करना  
 1. लैवेंडर cuttings के रूप में plantChoose sideshoots से शूट हटाना, इन छाल की एक पतली पट्टी, या एड़ी, अभी भी संलग्न के साथ मुख्य स्टेम से दूर खींच.
 

2. knife. This एड़ी के साथ काटने Trimming महत्वपूर्ण है क्योंकि यह वह जगह है जहाँ नए पौधे की जड़ों का विकास होगा. के छोटे प्रालंब बंद छाँटो एक चाकू के साथ अतिरिक्त छाल.
 

3. कम से पत्तियों को हटाने के निचले जोड़े cutting Remove इतना है कि पत्तियों को काटने नंगे स्टेम कि सफाई से खाद में डाला जा सकता है की एक लंबाई है.
 

4. Compost Dip में cuttings हार्मोन rooting में प्रत्येक काटने की कटौती अंत डालने. किरकिरा खाद के छोटे बर्तन के किनारे के आसपास कई cuttings डालें.
 

5. पॉलिथीन bag Water खाद के साथ कवर में अच्छी तरह से तो cuttings एक स्पष्ट पॉलिथीन बैग के साथ कवर करने के लिए पूरे पॉट cuttings के चारों ओर एक आर्द्र वातावरण बनाए रखें.
 

6. ग्रीनहाउस बेंच पर Cuttings बर्तन रखने की एक गर्म, छायांकित जगह में बर्तन रखो. एक बार rooting शुरू कर दिया है, बैग के कोने में कटौती करने के वेंटिलेशन वृद्धि हुई है. बैग निकालें पूरी तरह से एक कुछ हफ्तों के बाद. जगह में अच्छी तरह से cuttings छोड़ दो, जब तक वे कर रहे हैं फिर अलग से बर्तन निहित हैं.
 

"उनकी अंतिम स्थिति में बाहर planting से पहले की वृद्धि करने के लिए एक बड़े आकार के पौधों. काँच के तहत रक्षा cuttings या सर्दी में एक ठंडा फ्रेम."
लैवेंडर / Cuttings / पर उपलब्ध बीज संयंत्रों:  
चिनाब इंडस्ट्रीज  Chenab Industries 
POB: 667 GPO Srinagar SGR 190001 
Ph: 01933-223705  
Mob: 09858986794   
e-mail: cikashmir@gmail.com  
home: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com

Ceratonia siliqua

Ceratonia siliqua
Ceratonia siliqua
Botanical name: Ceratonia siliqua
Family: Fabaceae (pea)
Common names
(Kashmirian) : Wozuj Hemb
(Arabic) : kharrub
(Catalan) : garrofer, garrover
(English) : carob bean, carob tree, locust bean, St. John’s bread
(French) : caroubier
(German) : johannisbrotbaum, karubenbaum
(Greek) : charaoupi
(Italian) : carrubo
(Malay) : gelenggang
(Mandarin) : chiao-tou-shu
(Portuguese) : alfarrobeira
(Spanish) : algarrobo, garrover
(Thai) : chum het tai

Cultivation details: Requires a very sunny position in any well-drained moderately fertile soil. Does well in calcareous, gravelly or rocky soils. Tolerates salt laden air. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.2 to 8.6. The tree is very drought resistant, thriving even under arid conditions, the roots penetrating deep into the soil to find moisture. This species is not very hardy in Britain but it succeeds outdoors in favoured areas of S. Cornwall, tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c when in a suitable position. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. The carob is frequently cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible seed and seed pods. Mature trees in a suitable environment can yield up to 400 kilos of seedpods annually. There are named varieties with thicker pods. Seeds are unlikely to be produced in Britain since the tree is so near (if not beyond) the limits of its cultivation. The seed is very uniform in size and weight, it was the original 'carat' weight of jewellers. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.
                                                                                     
Propagation: Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water prior to sowing. If the seed has not swollen then give it another soaking in warm water until it does swell up. Sow in a greenhouse in April. Germination should take place within 2 months. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.

Quality seed & planting materials availabe for SALE!!!

For further details please write to:
Chenab Industries
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azeemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR J&K 192121
Mailing address: PO Box 667 Srinagar SGR J&K- 190001

Ph: 01933-223705
Call us: 09858986794
e.mail: iirc@rediffmail.com
web: http://chenabindustries.blogspot.com

About Chenab Industries : We are one of the premier registered Agriculture, Horticulture & Flouriculture based institution involved in production, development, introduction, trading and exporting of RAW HERBS, FRUITS, SPICES, Fruit,Medicinal Plants, Medicinal seeds,Vegetable seeds from the of Kashmir.

About our products : Pure Saffron Bulbs, Crocus sativus Linn, Crataegus oxyacantha Linn berries, Colchicum, Salvia sclarea, ,Celosia Linn, Pyrethrum,Chilies, Malus communis, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus serotina, Cedrus deodar,  Aeaxulus indica Colebr, Capsicum annum, Ginkgo biloba Seeds,Wild Cherry, Sweet Cherry, Pomengranate cuttings, Sweet Appricort, Apple, Kewi, Plum,Lukat, Peach, Almond, Walnut Grapes, Sweet Chestnut, Ginkgo biloba plants, Althaea officinalis, cypress cashmiriana seeds,  Dioscorea  deltoidea,Sorbus cashmiriana, Beldona seeds etc. etc.

Saffron seeds, Kesar, Crocus Sativus, Bulbs, Corms, Cultivation, propgation, Cashmiriana, Plantation, India, Kashmir,Guide, Cultivation methods

Scientific Cultivation of Saffron 
By: Ed. Sheikh GULZAAR
Head, The Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre-JKMPIC, Srinagar

Saffron, is the most expensive spice in the world. The scientific name for saffron is "Crocus Sativus L." It belongs to the family of Iridaceas and the line of liliaceas.

Saffron is a bulbous perennial plant, ranging from 10 to 30 centimetres in height. The bulb is meaty and round, although somewhat flat at the base. It is white coloured on the inside, covered with a fibrous and rough membrane, and brown in colour.

Flowers surge from the bulb in a stem of about 3 millimetres in diameter, which develop in two purple to violet coloured membranes.

The flower is called the "Rose of the Saffron" and made up of six eliptical pieces. The stem is also a violet colour when it initially emerges, becoming more opaque, and finally turning white.

The flower contains three large stamen with orange coloured anthers. Inside the flower tube is the style, a long white filament whose apex is orange coloured. This divides into three red threads, the threads or cloves of the saffron, which correspond to the stigmas.

Saffron is a perennnial , low growing herb with a globular   corm   ranging   from  0.5  to  5cm  in diameter. The corms (Monje/Seed) produce 6-15 narrow, needle like leaves about 10 cm long; surrounded in the lower region by four to five scales. The flowers are borne singly or in two to three. The three stigmas of the flowers along with the style when dried constitute the saffron of commerce. The plant is a native of Iran and Asia Minor. In the former princely state of  Kashmir Vale is a legendry crop of well drained plateau of  Pampore (South Kashmir) where it is being  grown since ancient times. The recorded time of saffron cultivation in Kashmir dates back 550 AD  nearly four centuries earlier than that recorded in Spain. It is rightly called the golden condiment of Kashmir. World's best Saffron also cultavated in Iran, Spain, Baluchistan, Gilgat and now in Afghanistan

COMPOSITION:
Saffron is an essencial oil (0.4 to 1.3 percent), rich in Saffranol, Cineol, and Pineno.  It contains Glucocids (alfa, gamma, and beta) and Protocrocines. Picrocrocines (4 percent) have been found, in addition to bitter Heterosides like the Pirocrocides.
A Heteroside of the Carotine Group, the Agliconan of the Picrococrocine is an aromatic Aldehide, the Saffranol (Dehidro-Beta-Ciclocitral). The pigment which gives it the peculiar color is Crocosid, also known as Policroita. Other pigments such as Crocinal, Licopine, Zeaxantine, and other Carotinoide pigments, like Carotine and Licopine, were also found.

USES/ DOSAGES : Via Infusions
2 to 4 grams per quart of water.
 
Powder Form :
300 mg to help digestion.
0.5 to 1.5 grams daily to help bowel activity.

For Use in Food : Crush the Saffron threads with your fingers or in a morter, add a small amount of hot water, then add to your dish. In most recepies the Saffron is added in the latter part of dish preparation, moments before removing the dish from the oven or stove top, to conserve its pungent aromatic flavor and color. It is common to use 2 to 4 strands of Saffron per person. Saffron is as precious as gold not because of its high demand and  low production  but because it  is used  in various religious rituals. Hindus use saffron for marking their foreheads, Muslims divine extract in water and write charms with ink thus formed. In Indian market mostly 50-60 per cent of saffron is used in chewing tobacco and for preparing wine. Saffron is used to prepare saffron rice, saffron cakes, wazwaan, tea, kehwa. cakes, in the preparation of scent and perfumes. It is used for colouring butter, Saffron Steamed Rice ,Saffron Rice Chicken, Special Scalloped Potatoes, Parsnip Lemon Puree,Orange Saffron Butter Cookies, Saffron fried rice, Saffron mutton rice, Saffron chicken rice cheese, puddings and confectionary. Like most oriental aromatic herbs saffron is also used in medicinal and culinary reputations. It stops vomiting, expels worms, heels headache and wounds. It is good for hemorrhoids, for removing the discoloration of face and pimples. It is good for epilepsy. Some times it is used in exenthematous diseases to promote eruption. It is popularly supposed to be a stimulant warm and dry in action helping in the alleviation of urinary, digestive and uterine troubles. Paste of saffron is used in dressing bruises, superficial sores, rheumatic and neurological pains and congestion of chest. Passaries of saffron are used in painful complaints of uterus. Dry boiled corms are administered in Ayurvedic and Unani ststem for treatment of gousciatica  and rheumatic pains.

Saffron Crocus Care : Growing saffron crocus can prove beneficial in two ways. It can be an inexpensive way to get saffron and apart from that saffron crocus plants are the first plants to bloom in fall and produce flowers throughout the season. The lavender-colored flowers can be a beautiful addition to your flower garden. If you are interested in knowing more about how to grow saffron crocus, read on.

* Saffron crocus can be grown from bulbs,seeds or corms. As most of the current varieties are SG1, you may not get saffron crocus seeds. But, purchase saffron crocus corms from reputed sellers only. Make sure that you are buying a saffron crocus variety (like Crocus sativus cashmirianus) only and not autumn meadow crocuses.

* The right time for planting these saffron crocus bulbs is late spring or early summer. You may also plant the corms or bulbs during the onset of fall, but, it will sprout the following spring only.

* Prepare the soil with organic material like adding compost, leaves or grass clippings to the soil. Saffron crocus plants need full sun and well drained soil for a healthy growth. The soil must not get soggy and the plant must be protected from wind. Read more on composting.

* Once you are ready with the location of planting, plant the corms in holes, which are at least four inches in depth. Always remember to plant these corms with their roots facing downwards. Keep a distance of six inches between the holes.

* If the location is likely to be frequented by rodents, it will be better to cover the area with a mesh enclosure, so that your corms are not eaten by the animals.

* During summer, the soil must be dry, as the plants become dormant in this season. The leaves and flowers develop during fall and during this season, you have to keep the soil moist (not soggy) through occasional watering.

* The flowering period may last for one month and during this time, a single application of liquid fertilizer is recommended. Continue with occasional watering till the onset of spring, as the leaves start withering during this time.

* During cold climates, dig out the corms and store them in a cold, dark place. Plant these corms again during late spring or early summer. Read more on saffron - fit for kings.

Now, you know more about saffron crocus cultivation. Start planting a saffron plant and enjoy the benefits.

Soil & Climate :
Saffron grows well in drained loamy soil. Medium grade, light soil with neutral to slightly alkaline reaction is suited for its cultivation. It prefers very well drained, clay loam soils of karewas of Kashmir. The soils should be deep and free from stones. Saffron thrives well in sub-temperate regions ranging from 1500 meter to 2400 meter.

It requires cool and sunny situation for promising growth. An optimum of 12 hours light duration is essential for growth and flowering. The day temperature should be 20-22  0C  with a difference of 10-12  0C between day and night temperatures. A good shower during August-September facilities flowering and increased yield. Dry weather condition during flowering period is essential for realizing higher yields. In general locations which receive  30-40 cms rainfall and are covered with snow during winter are good for its cultivation. Spring rains are favourable for promoting corm multiplication wherease, a second spell of rains at the beginning of autumn encourages profuse flowering.

Prpoagation :
Propgation of the plant is through corms. The plant remains dormant from May-August. The mother corm reproduces annually and gives rise to four to six daughter cormlets. The corms formed during a year produce flowers in the following year. The mother corms provide food to the new developing corms and in doing so wither, shrink and finally die. Now corms develope each year to replace the older once. Saffron bulbs multiply readily, and can (and probably should) be divided every few years.

Land Preparation and planting : Land preparation starts in March -April. The field is ploughed four to five times to a depth of 30-35 cms.Another  polghing is done in May and fields leveled. Well developed seed corms @1600 to 2000 kg per per hectare should be used after dipping in five percent solution of copper sulphate. The corms should be of 1.5 cms and above in diameter with outermost loose covering cleaned before planting. The corms should be planted in second fortnight of August at a depth of 15-20 cms with a row to row spacing of 15 cms and corm to corm spacing of five to eight cms. After planting divide the field into 2 meters x 4 meters strips by opening 15 deep and 30 cms wide furrows for proper drainage. Saffron can also be planted as an inter crop in newly planted orchards. The superior and less expensive method recommended by Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre is strip system.

Manures and fertilizers : Mix 15-20 tonnes per hectare of well decomposed FYM during last ploughing. Recent studies have revealed that application of vermicompost @350 kg/hectare has given a yield of 4.88 Kg/hectare.

Interculture : Keep the planted field undisturbed till the following June. Perform the first hoeing in June using a short handled  tangru locally called (in Kashmie) "ZOUN". This operation provides aeration to the soil which is very important for proper development of Saffron Corms.

Subsequently the second hoeing is done in the month of September along with cleaning and repairing of the drainage channels. Care should be taken not to disturb the growing buds of corms. This hoeing is accompanied by light dressing  of FYM at the rate of two tonnes per hectare. Third and final hoeing is given after the flowering is over and mannure is mixed in the soil with the help of iron  rakes. This schedule of operations is followed every year until the crop remains in the field.

Diseases and pests : Fungal diseases often infect the corms. Fungi like Rhizocotnia crocorum,, Sclerotina bulborum and Phoma Crocophila are reported to infect the corms changing the colour of flesh from white to yellow and finally to black resulting in death of the corms. poor aeration in the soil, injury to corms and hail storms provide ideal conditions for the development of diseases. Discarding can prevent this. Treat healthy corms with five percent copper sulphate solution during planting. Incidence of Gangrane disease (in this, the normal plant which prevents flower formation) is also reported from some fields. Rate and moles causing damage tones of corms every year often damage saffron cro. Zinc phoshide baiting and rat control campaign on watershed basis may be of great help.

Harvesting and processing :
The flowering season is confined to three weeks from middle of October to first week of November. The flowers are picked daily in the morning and stigmas and styles are trimmed immediately. About 1,60,000 flowers are hand picked to produce one kg of good quality dried saffron.

Saffron Bulbs/Seeds/Corms : Saffron is the only spice that comes from a flower. The flowers themselves are magnificent with a striking purple colour. Add a splash of colour to your flowerbeds or balconies with this splendid flower which blooms in October, thanks to its exceptional flower reversed vegetation cycle. What is more, you can grow and produce your own saffron easily.

Crocus Sativus (Saffron corms) for planting from June to September
Harvest in October-November of the same year!

The corms (size 2/5cm) are available from June to 10 September, however you can reserve them from now on. Corms are delivered with information of culture

Advance Booking of Saffron Corms from January to December

Buying Saffron Bulbs/Seeds/Corms
Available packets: 50, 100, 200 (Seeds/Corms/Bulbs)

For more details :
Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre
Ist Street, Shaheed-e-Azemat Road, Nambalbal, Pampore PPR Jammu and Kashmir 192121
Or
Mailing address: PO Box 667 GPO Srinagar SGR Jammu and Kashmir 190001
Ph: 01933-223705
Mob: 09858986794
e-mail: jkmpic@gmail.com, jkmpic@yahoo.in
home: http://jkmpic.blogspot.com

Planting material available : Olive,Kiwi, Picanut,Hazelnut, and herbal seeds. 
more : http://jkmpic.blogspot.com